鑫达医学翻译公司-最好的医学翻译、病历翻译、药学翻译、sci论文翻译、生物翻译网站!您最好的医学论文翻译合作伙伴!
设为首页 | 加入收藏 | 联系我们
首页 > 翻译讲堂 >

神经生物学翻译

发布者:鑫达医学翻译 发布时间:2012-09-06阅读:

The responsiveness of the peripheral nervous system to electrical stimulation has been recognized since at least the eighteenth century. In the simplest terms, modern clinical NCSs consist of stimulating a peripheral nerve and recording the response elsewhere on contiguous nerve or froma skeletalmuscle innervated by that nerve. Although a variety of methods may be used for stimulus or recording, most NCSs currently are performed with cutaneous, or surface, stimulating and recording electrodes. As a result, it is important for the electrodiagnostician to understand that all surface points of stimulation,
points of recording, and measurements thereof are approximations of the locations of their subcutaneous targets. This principle is important in terms of understanding that surfacemeasurementsmay not precisely reflect underlying anatomy and that uncertainty of sites of stimulation or recording limits the value of the study. A useful rule of thumb is that an NCS is useful insomuch as the examiner is certain what is being stimulated and what is being recorded.
For example, surface electrical stimulation of deeper nerves (such as the lower trunk of the brachial plexus) often requires large amounts of current. As a result, nearby neural structures (in this case, other elements of the brachial plexus) are likely to be incidentally stimulated. This may introduce doubt as to the generator of recorded responses elsewhere on the limb. Conversely, recording from proximal muscles that are adjacent to large similarly innervated muscles leads to a degree of uncertainty as to the source of a surface-recorded response.
For these reasons, NCS of proximal structures is technically challenging and performed much less commonly than NCS of more distal, and therefore easier to isolate, limb structures. With careful attention to technique, the examiner can approach a reasonable degree of certainty of selective stimulation and recording of distal nerves and muscles. 
    早在18世纪,科学家就发现外周神经系统可对电刺激产生应答。3当前临床进行的神经传导检查包括外周神经刺激,以及在其他神经交汇点或神经支配的肌肉组织进行应答检测。目前存在很多刺激或记录的方法,4但多数神经传导检查均通过皮肤刺激与电极记录的方式进行。因此,在进行电诊断检测时,医师需明确刺激位点、记录位点与检测方法,并确保上述位点与皮下靶标位置相符。需要注意的是,该方法以皮肤表面测定为基础,所以并不能准确反映内部结构变化。另外,刺激或记录位点的不确定性在某种程度上限制了该检查方法的使用。5根据我们的经验,在检测者熟悉刺激位点及记录位点的情况下,该方法还是较为有效的。
    例如,深层神经(如臂丛下干神经)的表面电刺激常需要较高电流。因此,在实施刺激时其周边神经很有可能也会受到影响。其他位点是否受到影响,尚未清楚。相反,由于表面刺激-记录应答的影响,与神经支配肌肉位置相近的近端肌肉所得检测结果也可能并不准确。
    鉴于以上原因,近端肌肉的神经传导检查难度较高,并未得到广泛应用。与之相比,远端肌肉神经传导检查位点更容易确定。6在谨慎操作的前提下,检测者可合理选择刺激位点,并对远端神经及肌肉进行传导检查。


鑫达医学翻译公司本着“专业、专注、诚信、共赢”的原则,旨在为广大客户提供生物学、医学、药学材料的口译与笔译,业务范围为医学英语翻译病历翻译医学文献翻译药学翻译SCI医学论文翻译以及写作与投稿,宣传册制作,项目申报材料及医疗类中英文网站的建设工作。
联系方式

免费咨询电话:400-6870-112
传真:0531-88956115
地址:山东省济南市高新区舜华路2000号舜泰广场6号楼27层CD区
邮箱: trans@xdtrans.com