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医学翻译作品展示-生理学领域

发布者:鑫达医学翻译 发布时间:2012-11-23阅读:

原文:
The Psychology of Distance Racing
Bob Braman –Florida State University
Concept :Athletes go through different states of awareness during long-distance racing, sometimes in a functional state and sometimes in a dysfunctional state. Distance racing is lengthy enough that total concentration can be very fatiguing, and thus it’s important to teach our athletes to be functional during both periods of concentration, as well as avoidance/distraction. I like to call these two different states simply as Inside Your Head or Outside Your Head.
Depending upon the situation or time in the race, either state of concentration can be productive or counter productive. Let’s examine each state and then discuss situations where each state is either productive or counterproductive.
Inside Your Head : When an athlete is “inside their head” they often have a single thought or mission, or perhaps even a particular song, in their thoughts. I even had an athlete who said she counted during a race. She was certainly inside her head. During this state the athlete is concentrating only on their own race and their plan; kind of like a horse with blinders on. The athlete does what he or she intends to do in the race and doesn’t concern themselves with the competition.
Sometimes this is described as being in a zone, being in a rhythm. Certainly a song can help with rhythm. The athlete is trying to think about anything other than the enormity of the assignment or the length of the race. They are trying to ignore the pains and stress of focused racing in an attempt to be as efficient as possible in their task.
Outside Your Head : When an athlete is “outside their head” they are acutely aware of the competition, the conditions and circumstance of the race, and also how functional they are (whether or not they are on-task to the pre-race goals). This athlete is exercising race strategy against both the course and the competition. Splits and scoring position checkpoints are critical. Racing strategy against the competition is a key element.

译文:
长跑竞赛心理学
Bob Braman-佛罗里达大学
概念:在长途竞赛中,运动员历经不同意识状态,有时为功能状态,有时为功能失调状态。长跑竞赛时,若全神贯注易,则导致疲劳。因此,有必要告知运动员在精神专注期及分散期保持机体功能。我喜欢将这两个不同时期称为专注期与分散期。
根据竞赛条件或时间,每种专注状态均会产生积极影响或消极作用。我们对每种状态进行检查,然后讨论每种状态产生积极影响或消极作用的条件。
专注期:当某一运动员处于专注期时,其想法或任务单一,可能脑海中仅想着一首特殊的歌曲。 我训练的其中一名运动员讲到其在竞赛中不停地数数。当然,她处于专注期。
该状态下,运动员仅专注于他们的竞赛或计划,就像被蒙上眼睛的马一样对外界置若罔闻。在竞赛中,他(她)会按照其计划比赛,而不会关注同台竞争的其他人。
有时,我们认为其处于某个区域,脑海中形成一种旋律。一首歌有助于运动员脑海中某一旋律的形成。 运动员专注于除竞赛任务的艰巨或竞赛距离外的事情。他们试图忽略竞赛的痛苦与压力,以保证高效完成竞赛任务。
分散期:当一名运动员处于分散期时,他(她)会关注竞赛任务、竞赛条件及周边环境,此外,也清楚自己的机能状态(是否在完成竞赛前的训练计划)。该运动员在训练与竞赛中发挥竞赛策略。竞技分配与得分位置检查点尤为重要。竞赛的策略是主要因素。


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