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发布者:鑫达医学翻译 发布时间:2013-03-18 8:50:52 阅读:

原文:
Diabetes mellitus is a common disorder of two types. Type 1 is characterized by a severe or complete absence of insulin and is due to an autoimmune attack on the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Type 2 is more common accounting for about 90% of diabetics in the United States, and is characterized by insulin resistance and influenced by many factors including obesity, diet, physical activity, and inheritance. 
      Diabetes mellitus has a propensity to cause microvascular disease, nephropathy, retinopathy, and peripheral neuropathy. Because of the heterogeneity of diabetic peripheral nervous complications, there is a lack of agreement among clinicians regarding the definition of diabetic neuropathy. An accepted definition of diabetic neuropathy is the presence of a clinical or subclinical diffuse disorder of somatic and/or autonomic parts of the peripheral nervous system in the setting of diabetes mellitus and in the absence of other causes of peripheral neuropathy.
      The classification of diabetic neuropathies cannot be rigid because many overlap syndromes may be seen. A practical categorization, based on clinical presentation rather than precise etiology, divides these neuropathies into distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (the commonest), asymmetrical polyradiculoneuropathy, cranial mononeuropathy, and entrapment mononeuropathy.


译文:
糖尿病是一种常见病,包括I型和II型两种。I型糖尿病的特点为自身免疫攻击胰腺中的胰岛,导致胰岛素严重不足或完全没有。II型糖尿病更为常见,美国约90%的糖尿病患者为II型糖尿病,其特点为胰岛素抗药性,受肥胖、日常饮食、体育活动和遗传等多种因素影响。
      糖尿病易引发微血管病、肾病、视网膜病变和周围神经病变。 由于糖尿病患者周围神经并发症的多样性,临床上对糖尿病神经病变尚无一致看法。公认的糖尿病神经病变概念为糖尿病患者躯干和/或周围神经系统自主部分出现临床或亚临床弥漫性疾病且无其他周围神经病变诱因。
      由于可能出现很多重叠综合征,糖尿病神经病变的分类并不严格。 根据临床表现(而非精确的病因学)进行的实用性分类将该类神经病变分为远端对称性多神经病变(最普通的)、不对称的多发性神经根神经病变、单脑神经病变和压迫性单神经病变。


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